Thursday, February 16, 2017

Health Care and Fleas

Sometimes a dog just has to scratch. But people shouldn’t be doing the same, especially if your dog has fleas, or if your home all of a sudden has an infestation of those pesky little bugs. They seem to be everywhere once they show up, and it feels like they multiply like…. Well, like fleas!

Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera. As external parasites of mammals and birds, they live by consuming the blood of their hosts. Adults are up to about 3 mm long and usually brown. Covered with microscopic hair and are compressed to allow for easy movement through animal fur.

According to Orkin, the pest control company, adult fleas are parasites that draw blood from a host. Larvae feed on organic debris, particularly the feces of adult fleas, which contain undigested blood. Fleas commonly prefer to feed on hairy animals such as dogs, cats, rabbits, squirrels, rats, mice and other domesticated or wild animals. Fleas do not have wings, although they are capable of jumping long distances. Eggs are not attached to the host. Eggs will hatch on the ground, in rugs, carpet, bedding, upholstery or cracks in the floor. Most hatch within two days.

Fleas depend on a blood meal from a host to survive, so most fleas are introduced into the home via pets or other mammal hosts. Orkin reports that on some occasions, fleas may become an inside problem when the host they previously fed on is no longer around. Then fleas focus their feeding activity on other hosts that reside inside the home. An example of such a situation is when a mouse inside the home is trapped and removed, the fleas that previously fed on the mouse are then forced to feed on pets or people. Much more detail on this issue can be found at this site: http://www.orkin.com/other/fleas/ .

According to this website, https://www.doyourownpestcontrol.com/fleas.htm , most of the time, fleas prefer nonhuman source for feeding, but if infestations are heavy, or when other hosts are not available, fleas will feed on humans. Fleas usually require warm and humid conditions to develop. A flea can jump 7 to 8 inches vertically and 14 to 16 inches horizontally with their long and powerful legs. A skin reaction to a flea bite appears as a slightly raised and red itchy spot. Sometimes these sores bleed.

Due to the flea life cycle (complete metamorphosis) and feeding habits, many people don't realize they have a flea problem until they are away from their house for an extended period. The flea problem is discovered, because the fleas get hungry while the hosts (you and your pets) are away. When you return, they become highly active because they are looking for food.

People tend to think putting the pet outside will solve the flea problem, but that typically makes the fleas turn to human hosts instead. There are several types of fleas, but the most common is the cat flea, which also feeds on dogs and humans. Fleas are attracted to body heat, movement, and exhaled carbon dioxide. The best time to start a flea control program is in the late spring, prior to an infestation, since adult fleas comprise only 5% of the total flea population. To contain an active flea infestation, fleas must be controlled at every stage.

When pet owners are asked what they dread most about the summer months, the topic that invariably comes up most is fleas! Fleas on dogs and cats! These small dark brown insects prefer temperatures of 65-80 degrees and humidity levels of 75-85 percent -- so for some areas of the country they are more than just a "summer" problem.

How do you know if fleas are causing all that itching – formally known as pruritus? Generally, unlike the burrowing, microscopic Demodex or Scabies Mites, fleas can be seen scurrying along the surface of the skin. Dark copper colored and about the size of the head of a pin, fleas dislike light so looking for them within furry areas and on the pet's belly and inner thighs will provide your best chances of spotting them. A lot of additional information about fleas and how to treat them is found at this website: http://www.petmd.com/dog/care/evr_dg_fleas_on_dogs_and_what_you_can_do_about_them .

Fleas are tiny, irritating insects, according to HealthLine. Their bites are itchy and sometimes painful, and getting rid of them is hard. Sometimes professional pest control treatment may be required. Fleas reproduce quickly, especially if you have pets in the household. But even if you don’t have pets, your yard can potentially play host to fleas, and you may end up with a bunch of mysterious bites. For more details, visit this website: http://www.healthline.com/health-slideshow/flea-bites .

According to the University of Kentucky School of Entomology, if you neglect to treat the pet's environment (the premises), you will miss more than 90% of the developing flea population -- the eggs, larvae and pupae. If the pet spends time indoors, the interior of the home should also be treated. Before treatment, the pet owner should:

·         Remove all toys, clothing, and stored items from floors, under beds, and in closets. This step is essential so that all areas will be accessible for treatment.
·         Remove pet food and water dishes, cover fish tanks, and disconnect their aerators.
·         Wash, dry-clean or destroy all pet bedding.
·         Vacuum! -- vacuuming removes many of the eggs, larvae and pupae developing within the home. Vacuuming also stimulates pre-adult fleas to emerge sooner from their insecticide-resistant cocoons, thus hastening their contact with insecticide residues in the carpet. By raising the nap of the carpet, vacuuming improves the insecticide's penetration down to the base of the carpet fibers where the developing fleas live. Vacuum thoroughly, especially in areas where pets rest or sleep. Don't forget to vacuum along edges of rooms and beneath furniture, cushions, beds, and throw rugs. After vacuuming, seal the vacuum bag in a garbage bag and discard it in an outdoor trash container. 

It is important that the pet be treated in conjunction with the premises, preferably on the same day. Adult fleas spend virtually their entire life on the animal -- not in the carpet. Untreated pets will continue to be bothered by fleas. They may also transport fleas in from outdoors, eventually overcoming the effectiveness of the insecticide applied inside the home. Much more detailed info on this subject is located here: https://entomology.ca.uky.edu/ef602 .

Both indoor and outdoor areas can be sprayed with insecticides to eliminate fleas, if necessary. According to this website, http://www.petsandparasites.org/dog-owners/fleas/, treatment of your home or yard is best performed by a trained pest control expert. Consult with your veterinarian as to which flea products will break the flea life cycle in the environment. Most flea problems can be managed by treating and preventing fleas on your pet. It is important to keep in mind that flea problems may be different from pet to pet or between households, and each problem may require a special method of control.

See your veterinarian for advice on your specific situation. Your veterinarian can recommend safe and effective products for controlling fleas and can determine exactly what you need. Your veterinarian can also determine whether you should consult with a pest control specialist about treating your home and yard.

There are both chemical and natural ways to treat fleas, and for those who are more inclined to treat flea infestation naturally, fleas in the home can be easily and effectively eradicated without the use of poisons. The age-old scourge of fleas, usually associated with pet dogs or cats, can affect any home. And while chemical-based flea treatments can be effective, they may pose health hazards to occupants as well as pets. Natural and non-toxic flea control methods, such as Diatomaceous Earth, and electric flea traps, are safer options.

Surveys show that as many as 50% of American families report using some kind of flea and tick control product on pets, exposing millions of children to toxic chemicals on a daily basis. Initial research also shows that thousands of pets may be sickened or die each year as a result of chronic low-dose exposure to organophosphate-based insecticides through their flea and tick collars.

But while there are countless stories of pets, and even people, who have suffered the ill effects of flea treatments, finding alternatives can be a problem for most people. For a significant amount of information about natural applications to treat an infestation of fleas, visit this website: http://eartheasy.com/live_natural_flea_control.html .

Fleas are a common problem if you have pets. Getting ahead of the problem with preventive measures to kill and control fleas is the best way to avoid a much bigger issue for both your pets and your family and home. Use quality products and have regular veterinarian visits to make sure your pets and family are well and remain free from this itchy, and sometimes dangerous,  situation.


Until next time.

Friday, February 10, 2017

Health Care and Diptheria

Diphtheria once was a major cause of illness and death among children, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The United States recorded 206,000 cases of diphtheria in 1921 and 15,520 deaths. Before there was treatment for diphtheria, up to half of the people who got the disease died from it.

Starting in the 1920s, diphtheria rates dropped quickly in the United States and other countries with the widespread use of vaccines. In the past decade, there were less than five cases of diphtheria in the United States reported to CDC. However, the disease continues to cause illness globally. In 2014, 7,321 cases of diphtheria were reported to the World Health Organization, but there are likely many more cases.

Diphtheria is an infection caused by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacterium, according to the CDC. Diphtheria is spread (transmitted) from person to person, usually through respiratory droplets, like from coughing or sneezing. Rarely, people can get sick from touching open sores (skin lesions) or clothes that touched open sores of someone sick with diphtheria.

A person also can get diphtheria by coming in contact with an object, like a toy, that has the bacteria that cause diphtheria on it. For more details, visit this website: https://www.cdc.gov/diphtheria/about/index.html .

Diphtheria typically causes a sore throat, fever, swollen glands and weakness, according to the Mayo Clinic. But the hallmark sign is a sheet of thick, gray material covering the back of your throat, which can block your airway, causing you to struggle for breath. Diphtheria is extremely rare in the United States and other developed countries, thanks to widespread vaccination against the disease.

Medications are available to treat diphtheria. However, in advanced stages, diphtheria can damage your heart, kidneys and nervous system. Even with treatment, diphtheria can be deadly — up to 3 percent of people who get diphtheria die of it. The rate is higher for children under 15. More information on this disease is also available at this site: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diphtheria/home/ovc-20300505 .

According to HealthLine, in some cases, these toxins can also damage other organs, including the heart, brain and kidneys. This can lead to potentially life-threatening complications, such as myocarditis, paralysis or kidney failure. Children in the United States and Europe are routinely vaccinated against diphtheria, so the condition is rare in these countries. However, diphtheria is still fairly common in developing countries where immunization rates are low.

In these countries, children under age 5 and people over age 60 are particularly at risk of getting diphtheria. People are also at an increased risk of contracting diphtheria if they:
·         Aren’t up to date on their vaccinations.
·         Visit a country that doesn’t provide immunizations.
·         Have an immune system disorder, such as AIDS.
·         Live in unclean or crowded conditions.

You may also develop cutaneous diphtheria, or diphtheria of the skin, if you have poor hygiene or live in a tropical area. Diphtheria of the skin usually causes ulcers and redness in the affected area. More info on diptheria is located at this website: http://www.healthline.com/health/diphtheria#Overview1 .

Preventing diphtheria, according to KidsHealth, depends almost completely on giving the diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine to children (DTaP) and non-immunized adolescents and adults (Tdap). After a single dose of Tdap, adolescents and adults should receive a booster shot with the diphtheria/tetanus vaccine (Td) every 10 years.

Most cases of diphtheria occur in people who haven't received the vaccine at all or haven't received the entire course.The Tdap vaccine is also recommended for all pregnant women during the second half of each pregnancy, regardless of whether or not they had the vaccine before, or when it was last given.

The immunization schedule calls for:
·         DTaP vaccines at 2, 4, and 6 months of age
·         Booster dose given at 12 to 18 months
·         Booster dose given again at 4 to 6 years
·         Tdap vaccine given at 11-12 years
·         Booster shots of Td given every 10 years after that to maintain protection
·         Tdap vaccine during the second half of each pregnant woman's pregnancy

Although most children tolerate it well, the vaccine sometimes causes mild side effects such as redness or tenderness at the injection site, a low-grade fever, or general fussiness or crankiness. Severe complications, such as an allergic reaction, are rare. Much more information on this subject is found at this site: http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/diphtheria.html .


Usually the matter is settled, one way or the other, in 7 to 10 days. Sometimes there are lasting complications such as arthritis, paralysis, or brain damage, according to this website: https://www.drgreene.com/articles/diphtheria/ . Cutaneous diphtheria is not as serious as other forms, but it usually takes up to 3 months to recover – and sometimes a year or more.

Antitoxin and diphtheria antibiotics should be given immediately. Skin lesions need to be thoroughly and carefully cleaned. Other treatment will depend on the clinical status of the victim. It may be minimal or critical care may be required. Most need tube feedings and frequent suctioning. Some need a tracheostomy, according to DrGreene.com. Strict bed rest is recommended for all those with diphtheria for at least 2 or 3 weeks, with heart monitoring at least several times a week for a month or more to detect any damage to the heart. Most people who recover from diphtheria do not develop immunity! They need to be immunized soon after recovery.

Diptheria is deadly, and can be spread easily in many situations. If you or your children have not been immunized against it, visit your doctor or a health care facility as soon as possible to be vaccinated. Preventive care is the first line of defense against this terrible disease.


Until next time.

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Health Care and Ear Wax

Ever have an annoying problem not being able to hear, and it was due to a build up of what’s known as ear wax? One of the most common causes related to loss of hearing is when your ear canal produces a  waxy substance that, unless treated and cleaned regularly, can be a detriment to your ability to clearly hear sounds.

According to Healthline, your ear canal produces a waxy oil called cerumen, which is more commonly known as earwax. This wax protects the ear from dust, foreign particles, and microorganisms. It also protects ear canal skin from irritation due to water. In normal circumstances, excess wax finds its way out of the canal and into the ear opening naturally and then is washed away.

When your glands make more earwax than is necessary, it may get hard and block the ear. When you clean your ears, you can accidentally push the wax deeper, causing a blockage. Wax buildup is a common reason for temporary hearing loss. More information can be found at this website: http://www.healthline.com/health/earwax-buildup .

Cerumen, as noted by the American Hearing Research Foundation, protects the skin of the human ear canal, assists in cleaning and lubrication, and also provides some protection against bacteria, fungi, insects and water. Earwax consists of shed skin cells, hair, and the secretions of the ceruminous and sebaceous glands of the outside ear canal. Major components of earwax are long chain fatty acids, both saturated and unsaturated, alcohols, squalene, and cholesterol. Excess or compacted cerumen can press against the eardrum or block the outside ear canal or hearing aids, potentially causing hearing loss.

According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology (AAO), cerumen or earwax is healthy in normal amounts and serves as a self-cleaning agent with protective, lubricating, and antibacterial properties. The absence of earwax may result in dry, itchy ears. Self-cleaning means there is a slow and orderly movement of earwax and dead skin cells from the eardrum to the ear opening. Old earwax is constantly being transported, assisted by chewing and jaw motion, from the ear canal to the ear opening where, most of the time, it dries, flakes, and falls out.

Earwax is not formed in the deep part of the ear canal near the eardrum. It is only formed in the outer one-third of the ear canal. So, when a patient has wax blockage against the eardrum, it is often because he has been probing the ear with such things as cotton-tipped applicators, bobby pins, or twisted napkin corners. These objects only push the wax in deeper. More info about this topic is located at this site: http://www.entnet.org/content/earwax-and-care .

You’re also more likely to have wax buildup if you frequently use earphones, which can inadvertently prevent earwax from coming out of the ear canals and cause blockages, according to Healthline. The appearance of earwax varies from light yellow to dark brown. Darker colors do not necessarily indicate that there is a blockage. Signs of earwax buildup include:

·         Sudden or partial hearing loss, which is usually temporary
·         Tinnitus, which is a ringing or buzzing in the ear
·         A feeling of fullness in the ear
·         Ear ache

Unremoved earwax buildup can lead to infection. Contact your doctor if you experience the symptoms of infection, such as:

·         Severe pain in your ear
·         Pain in your ear that does not subside
·         Drainage from your ear
·         Fever
·         Coughing
·         Persistent hearing loss
·         An odor coming from your ear
·         Dizziness

It’s important to note that hearing loss, dizziness, and earaches also have many other causes. You should see your doctor if any of these symptoms are frequent. A full medical evaluation can help determine whether the problem is due to excess earwax or another health issue.

To clean the ears, wash the external ear with a cloth, but do not insert anything into the ear canal, according to the AAO. Most cases of ear wax blockage respond to home treatments used to soften wax. Patients can try placing a few drops of mineral oil, baby oil, glycerin, or commercial drops in the ear. Detergent drops such as hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide (available in most pharmacies) may also aid in the removal of wax.

Irrigation or ear syringing is commonly used for cleaning and can be performed by a physician or at home using a commercially available irrigation kit. Common solutions used for syringing include water and saline, which should be warmed to body temperature to prevent dizziness. Ear syringing is most effective when water, saline, or wax dissolving drops are put in the ear canal 15 to 30 minutes before treatment. Caution is advised to avoid having your ears irrigated if you have diabetes, a hole in the eardrum (perforation), tube in the eardrum, skin problems such as eczema in the ear canal or a weakened immune system.

Manual removal of earwax is also effective. This is most often performed by an otolaryngologist using suction or special miniature instruments, and a microscope to magnify the ear canal. Manual removal is preferred if your ear canal is narrow, the eardrum has a perforation or tube, other methods have failed, or if you have skin problems affecting the ear canal, diabetes or a weakened immune system.

Some people are troubled by repeated build-up of earwax and require ear irrigation every so often. More information about ear syringing is available at this site: http://patient.info/health/earwax-leaflet .

According to the Cleveland Clinic, if left untreated, excessive ear wax may cause symptoms of ear wax impaction to become worse. These symptoms might include hearing loss, ear irritation, etc. A build-up of ear wax might also make it difficult to see into the ear, which may result in potential problems going undiagnosed.  Do not stick anything into your ears to clean them. Use cotton swabs only on the outside of the ear. 

If you have a severe enough problem with ear wax that you need to have it removed by a health professional more than once a year, discuss with them which method of prevention (if any) may work best for you. Additional details on this subject are available at this website: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/cerumen-impaction-earwax-buildup-and-blockage .

Ear candling has gained a lot of attention as a home remedy for earwax removal (and overall well-being), but doctors strongly advise against it because hasn't been proved to be safe or effective. In ear candling, one end of a cone-type device is inserted into the ear canal and the other end is set on fire, with the idea that the fire and the cone form a vacuum and extract the wax. 

But trying this at home means a high risk of burning the ear canal and possibly perforating or punching a hole in the eardrum, which can permanently damage hearing, according to KidsHealth. Find more info at this site: http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/earwax.html .

Ear wax buildup can be a problem, so see your doctor if you are having hearing problems or notice any of the symptoms noted in this article. Be careful with home remedies, and always get medical attention if your ears have any problems.


Until next time. 

Monday, November 28, 2016

Health Care and Senior Wellness

Most senior citizens typically have at least one health care issue that they deal with on a daily basis, whether it’s either physical or mental difficulty. Possibly it is both in many cases. As you age, staying active mentally is just as important as staying physically active. Now more than ever, seniors are leading active lifestyles, traveling, and trying new activities. However, older adults that could use a little support and assistance in their daily lives often are not sure how to accomplish those tasks.

There are many available resources that provide the human connection needed to enhance a senior’s quality of life, also to help reduce loneliness and provide information on available senior support services, including caring volunteers who provide support with errands such as transportation for grocery shopping, short medical appointments, errands and social outings. Seniors in many cases need assistance, depending on age and physical and mental capabilities.

Providing coordinated care with specific attention to most common problems within the senior population is important for a well rounded senior wellness regimen. Some of the more critical areas of care and support should include the following steps:

Basic Physical Assessments:
·         Intellectual impairment
·         Immobility
·         Instability
·         Incontinence
·         Iatrogenic (inadvertently induced) disorders

Geriatric Assessments
·         Clinical history
·         Nutritional assessment
·         Social evaluation
·         Neuropsychiatric evaluation
·         Physical examination
·         Functional examination

Support services and educational classes:
·         Nutrition
·         Diabetes
·         Independent living
·         Memory and healthy brain function
·         Fall prevention
·         Exercise
·         Caregiver support

Both seniors and caregivers should understand the importance of preventive healthcare and be involved with senior wellness programs that focus on prevention, detection, education and follow-up in order to achieve and maintain productive, high-quality lives.  Whether you live independently at home or in a senior living facility, you may benefit from occasional visits by a registered nurse to ensure you are maintaining a healthy lifestyle. At your first visit, a complete medical assessment should be provided by a registered nurse for the following areas:
  • Physical
  • Emotional
  • Psychosocial
Another consideration for seniors is prescription adherence. According to the Institute of Medicine, over 1.5 million people each year have adverse reactions due to medication errors or interactions. Caregivers and medical professionals, such as a doctor, nurse or physician assistant, should come to your senior center, group residence, or home and perform a complete medication review, to help you with the following needs:

·         Understand what medications you are taking and why
·         Learn how to properly take your medication and at what times for optimal results
·         Develop a medication chart that is easy to follow
·         Separate medication into daily/weekly containers
·         Create a telephone list of contact numbers or medication record in the case of an emergency to keep in a convenient location

For seniors to stay their healthiest and enjoy life to the fullest, it's important to have regular health checkups by a medical professional. Assessments can include:
·         Physical
·         Emotional
·         Psychosocial
·         Neurological
·         Chronic illness such as diabetes, cholesterol, hypertension and asthma
·         Hearing
·         Medication review

An indepth health program for seniors may provide more detailed provision for the following needs for wellness that focus on helping them strengthen and maintain the skills that other workouts often overlook:

Gross motor skills—including balance and proprioception to keep you on your feet and active. Proprioception is the ability to innately sense your body’s position, movement, and spatial orientation, even when you are not looking. Examples of this are walking up and down steps without looking at each step, catching a fly ball, or closing the eyes and touching the nose.

Mental processing, motor planning, and motor sequencing—the ability to take information, process it, plan next actions, and implement those actions. The goal is to keep the senior’s mind and body working together.

Visual motor skills—like peripheral vision and efficient visual information processing—to maintain and enhance the mental connection between what seniors see and how their bodies reacts to it.

Personal Training--fitness specialists work with seniors one-on-one—at their comfort level—to develop a customized fitness plan that focuses on the areas and skills they wish to target.

Bone & Joint Health Program--uses state-of-the-art technology to help seniors safely and comfortably build bone, muscle, and joint strength and counteract the effects of osteoporosis and osteopenia.

Accessible health, nutrition, exercise, and insurance information is increasingly important to older adults, seniors, and members of their families, who are often their part-time caregivers. Yet information about providers, programs, services, resources, and preventive care is overwhelming, confusing, and fairly inaccessible. Because many federal, state, and city programs overlap, older adults and seniors need help understanding what services are available and whether they qualify.

A good senior wellness program engages both English- and Spanish-speaking seniors to help them understand the information, services, benefits, and programs that exist to help them maintain and improve their physical health and emotional well-being. Senior wellness program benefits may also include:

·         Insurance counseling, including Medicare and Medicaid
·         Benefit Access Program
·         Energy assistance
·         Senior companion program
·         Pet companion service

Educational classes may include:
·         Aging well and diseases related to aging
·         Medical management for physical health and mental health
·         Crime prevention
·         Senior resources, including government benefits and housing information

Here are a few websites that have senior friendly information: https://www.agingcare.com/Articles/Home-Modification-for-Senior-Friendly-Living-104573.htm ; http://www.everydayhealth.com/bipolar-disorder/bipolar-disorder-in-seniors.aspx ; http://www.assistedlivingct.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/RT-Aging-in-Place-Safe-at-Home-Checklist.pdf ; http://www.aplaceformom.com/senior-care-resources/articles/elderly-depression .

Senior wellness programs can be very basic, such as just providing an exercise program or minimal social services at a local senior daycare center, to as inclusive as providing most of the services described in this story. Depending on the financial capabilities of how seniors can most afford those programs, it is in the best interest of caregivers and those seniors they are assisting to help those senior adults in navigating their pending wellness needs.


Until next time.

Thursday, November 3, 2016

Health Care and Sleep Apnea

One of the most challenging aspects of sleeping soundly is a health issue known as sleep apnea. It is a common disorder that causes interruptions in breathing during sleep, preventing oxygen from reaching the brain. Sufferers wake hundreds of times per night, each time normal breathing is interrupted and the brain is depleted of oxygen.

As a result, they never feel rested and experience excessive daytime grogginess. It is not a disease but increases risks of contracting other diseases and conditions. There are three types: obstructive, central and complex, which is a combination of the first two, according to SimpleSleepSolutions.com.

Central Sleep Apnea is caused when the brain fails to properly signal the muscles to breath. It is very uncommon and snoring is generally not a symptom.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common form of sleep apnea, with some estimates at 1 in 7 people in the U.S being afflicted with some form of OSA. In OSA, the muscles around the throat and airway relax, causing the airway to collapse. Sometimes the tongue falls back and obstructs the airway. The brain can no longer receive oxygen and sends a signal to the muscles to open, often causing the person to wake up with a gasp or a snort. Most of the time, sufferers do not recall waking up during these episodes.

More than 18 million adults have sleep apnea, according to the National Sleep Foundation. It is very difficult at present to estimate the prevalence of childhood OSA because of widely varying monitoring techniques, but a minimum prevalence of 2 to 3% is likely, with prevalence as high as 10 to 20% in habitually snoring children. More information is located at this website: https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-disorders-problems/sleep-apnea/page/0/1 .

Sleep apnea can make you wake up in the morning feeling tired or unrefreshed even though you have had a full night of sleep, according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. During the day, you may feel fatigued, have difficulty concentrating or you may even unintentionally fall asleep. This is because your body is waking up numerous times throughout the night, even though you might not be conscious of each awakening.

The lack of oxygen your body receives can have negative long-term consequences for your health. This includes:
·         High blood pressure
·         Heart disease
·         Stroke
·         Pre-diabetes and diabetes
·         Depression

If you sleep on your back, gravity can cause the tongue to fall back. This narrows the airway, which reduces the amount of air that can reach your lungs. The narrowed airway causes snoring by making the tissue in back of the throat vibrate as you breathe. Obstructive sleep apnea in adults is considered a sleep-related breathing disorder. Causes and symptoms differ for obstructive sleep apnea in children and central sleep apnea. More info is available at this site: http://www.sleepeducation.org/essentials-in-sleep/sleep-apnea .

Anyone can develop it, regardless of gender or age, and even children can be afflicted, according to Simple Sleep Solutions. The most common risk factors include:
·         Excess weight, especially obesity – about half of all OSA sufferers are overweight
·         Male, although recent research has indicated that women’s risk increases to about the same level as men once they reach post-menopausal age
·         Over the age of 60
·         Smoking
·         Enlarged tonsils and adenoids, one of the most common factors for children with OSA, particularly overweight children
·         Having certain anatomical features such as a thick neck, narrowed airway, deviated spectrum or a receding chin
·         Using alcohol, sedatives and tranquilizers, all of which relax the muscles in the airway
·         Having asthma, in adults and children, particularly if they are overweight
·         Race and ethnicity can play a part as well – some studies have indicated African Americans, Hispanics and other races have a slightly higher risk
·         Allergies and chronic nasal congestion

Only a doctor or sleep specialist can confirm if you or a loved one is suffering from sleep apnea. More information is available at this website: http://www.simplesleepservices.com/what-is-sleep-apnea/ .

According to the National Institutes for Health (NIH), Doctors diagnose sleep apnea based on medical and family histories, a physical exam, and sleep study results. Your primary care doctor may evaluate your symptoms first, and will then decide whether you need to see a sleep specialist. Sleep specialists are doctors who diagnose and treat people who have sleep problems. Examples of such doctors include lung and nerve specialists and ear, nose, and throat specialists. Other types of doctors also can be sleep specialists.

If you think you have a sleep problem, consider keeping a sleep diary for 1 to 2 weeks. Bring the diary with you to your next medical appointment. Write down when you go to sleep, wake up, and take naps. Also write down how much you sleep each night, how alert and rested you feel in the morning, and how sleepy you feel at various times during the day. This information can help your doctor figure out whether you have a sleep disorder.

Sleep studies are tests that measure how well you sleep and how your body responds to sleep problems. These tests can help your doctor find out whether you have a sleep disorder and how severe it is. Sleep studies are the most accurate tests for diagnosing sleep apnea. There are different kinds of sleep studies.

If your doctor thinks you have sleep apnea, he or she may recommend a polysomnogram (also called a PSG) or a home-based portable monitor. Testing can show patterns and symptoms that can help lead to a diagnosis and treatment options. More information is available at this site: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/sleepapnea .

According to HelpGuide.org, if your sleep apnea is moderate to severe, or you’ve tried self-help strategies and lifestyle changes without success, a sleep doctor may help you find an effective treatment. Treatment for sleep apnea has come a long way in recent times, so even if you were unhappy with sleep apnea treatment in the past, you may now find something that works for you.

Treatments for central and complex sleep apnea usually include treating any underlying medical condition causing the apnea, such as a heart or neuromuscular disorder, and using supplemental oxygen and breathing devices while you sleep. Treatment options for obstructive sleep apnea include:
·         CPAP
·         Other breathing devices
·         Dental devices
·         Implants
·         Surgery

Medications are only available to treat the sleepiness associated with sleep apnea, not the sleep apnea itself. Much more material on this health care issue can be found at this website: http://www.helpguide.org/articles/sleep/sleep-apnea.htm .

Since so many people suffer from sleep apnea, it is perceived as a very common problem, but not that many take steps to deal with the problem. As sleep apnea can result in long term more severe health issues, it is advisable to see your doctor for a solution that is to your benefit. If you have it, or think you do, get help. You’ll sleep better for it.


Until next time.